Saturday, March 2, 2019

March 02, 2019

Past Papers of 9th Class AJK Board

All past papers of the last 4 - 5 years of AJK Board Mirpur are available here. You can download any of them from the link given below in PDF format for free. Please share it with your friends so that others can also get benefit from it.

Saturday, December 8, 2018

December 08, 2018

How to Identify Transitive and Intransitive Verb in a Sentence

Identification of a transitive and an intransitive verb in a sentence is super easy if one knows to differentiate between direct and indirect objects.

Transitive Verb
Transitive verbs are those action verbs which are always followed by direct objects. 
Let’s look at the following examples.
Last night, I kicked the football out of the ground.
I = Subject; Kicked = Verb and football = Object.
To identify the verb either transitive or intransitive, first, we need to find out whether the object right after the verb is a direct object or an indirect one. A direct object always answers “What and Whom”. In this case, the object, football, is the direct object, therefore, without further thinking, we can say that “Kicked” is a transitive verb.
He has bought a white cap from the market.
Bought = Transitive Verb; white cap = direct object.'
He always skips his classes due to his company.
Skips = transitive verb; his classes = direct object. [What does he skip? He skips his classes.]
She hates him since when he has betrayed her.
Hates = transitive verb; him = direct object. [She hates whom? She hates him.]

Intransitive Verb
On the other hand, an intransitive verb is also an action verb but it does not have a direct object to receive the action. It is always followed by an indirect object. It is often followed by a prepositional phrase. If a verb is not followed by a direct object, it can never be a transitive verb.
Let’s look at the following examples.
Zara was sitting in the shade of a tree.
Sitting = Intransitive verb, in the shade = prepositional phrase.
He came to the school after a week.
Came = Intransitive verb; to the school = prepositional phrase.
Aslam gave my friend a gift.
In the example, the verb “gave” is followed by an indirect object.
Gave = Intransitive verb; my friend = indirect object. [Aslam gave a gift to whom? Aslam gave a gift to my friend.]
He was running over the desks in the classroom.
Running = Intransitive verb; over the desks = prepositional phrase.
To conclude, a verb can be transitive or intransitive depending on whether followed by a direct object or not.

Monday, October 29, 2018

October 29, 2018

How to identify an adverb clause in a sentence

First, let me remind you what a clause is.  A clause is a group of words that consists of a subject and a verb. E.g. He is wearing a red cap. In this sentence, “he is wearing” is a clause because it consists of a subject “he”, and a verb “wearing”.

An adverb is a word which modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs whereas an adverb clause is a subordinating or dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. So both have the same functions. It almost always starts with subordinating conjunctions. Below is the list of most common subordinating conjunctions.
After, although, as, because, before, even, if, even though, in order that, once, provided that, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, whenever, whether, why, why.
Try to memorize a few of them until you can spot them based on their work in a sentence. 
Let’s we look at some of the examples:
He bought a new pair of sports shoes because he loves to play cricket.
In the sentence, first, we’ve got to find the trigger word which is always at the beginning of a subordinating clause. In our sentence “because” is the trigger word which introduces a dependent or subordinating clause in the sentence. Now we can find the rest of the clause which should consist of a subject and a verb.

In the sentence given above, “he” is the subject and “loves” is the verb. Therefore, “because he loves to play cricket” is our adverb clause. But what does it modify?
As we know an adverb clause can modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb, therefore, our clause cannot modify “he” and “shoes” because these are nouns. It must modify the verb “bought”. Let’s put it to the test using our adverb questions:
  • Where
  • When
  • How
  • Why
  • To what extent
  • In what manner
  • Under what conditions.
Bought where? NO ANSWER!
Bought when? NO AGAIN!
Bought why? Because he loves to play cricket.
In this way, we can modify our adverb clauses.

TIP ABOUT ADVERB CLAUSES: When they are at the beginning of a sentence, they are always almost followed by a comma. 
Even though I don’t feel like eating, I made breakfast.
Again first find the trigger word, “EVEN THOUGH”. Because it is at the beginning of the sentence, we can assume that when we get to the comma, we’ve found the adverb clause. So our adverb clause is “Even though I don’t feel like eating” and the rest is our main clause. So what does it modify in the main clause?
It is modifying the word “MADE” in the main clause because there is no other word in the main clause which can possibly be modified. But let’s test it anyway.
Made where? NO ANSWER!
Made when? NO ANSWER!
Made why? AGAIN NO!
Made under what condition? Even though I don’t feel like eating.
Hina was angry because I broke her mobile.
Our adverb clause is “because I broke her mobile”. What does it modify in the main clause? Since adverb can neither modify a noun or a linking verb, therefore, it must modify the predicate adjective “Angry”. Let’s test it out.
Angry why? Because I broke her mobile.
She returned to the classroom slowly because she was ill.
Our adverb clause is “because she was ill”. The clause modifies the adverb “slowly” in the main clause. To verify it, let’s put it to the test.
Why slowly? Because she was ill.

In this way, we can spot adverb clauses and also find out which word of the main clause in being modified by the clause using our adverb questions.

Sunday, September 23, 2018

September 23, 2018

Ships and Mountains Analogy in the Quran and Science

Islam, Quran-and-Science, Religion, Quran-on-mountains-and-ships, Galileo, Tom_Garrison-and-Micheal_allaby, Oceans, Science-and-religion
Back in the 1500s, when the famous physicist and astronomer, Galileo, first championed the idea that Earth revolved around the Sun, he was called a raging lunatic and convicted of heresy by the church. He, Galileo, was then sentenced to life imprisonment and died under house arrest around 9 years later. But if a 10 years old tells his science teacher that same fact today, nobody even bats an eyelash. So what has changed?
Lots of things!
The world has evolved new technologies that help us more accurately understand astronomy. So poor old Galileo was not insane, he was simply before his time. Now scientists have more advanced tools and gadgets that can help them avoid meeting the same fate as Galileo but sometimes their claims still make us double-take when we first hear them especially if we do not have a background in science and physics.
Let's look at an example:
Two different scientists, in their published work, Tom Garrison and Micheal Allaby both compared mountains to ships. Mountains are those tall massive structures that protrude out of the earth in such a stately solid way and ships sailing in the open water sound like an odd coupling but the physical law of buoyancy developed by the Greek Mathematician Archimedes would say otherwise. This is because of the driving force behind both the ships and the mountains is one and the same and it's called Buoyancy.
Now the word buoyant or floating is something difficult to understand and visualize when we think of mountains. Guess what happens when a surface of a mountains gets covered by a thick sheet of ice?
To answer this question, let's look at the following analogy.
When the ships floating in the ocean are loaded with cargo, then the ships sink and travel deeper into the water than it was before getting loaded. Similarly, when a thick sheet of ice accumulates on a surface of a mountain, it sinks into the mantle under its weight.
Now, what happens to the mountain after the removal of the thick sheet of ice from its surface? In much the same way as a ship rises again after the removal of cargo, the Earth's crust will rise again in response to the reduced load on the mountain.

We know all this today from the research conducted by scientists such as Tom Garrison and Micheal Allaby in 2013-14 but flashback fourteen centuries ago when the Quran was revealed and we find that it makes the same analogy in chapter 42 verse 32 when it says:
Quran-and-science, Quran-verses, Quran-about-sea-and-mountains,

Then in Surah Ar-Rahman verse 24, GOD says;
Quran-and-science, Quran-verses, Quran-about-sea-and-mountains,

How in the world could a book revealed that long ago possibly contain accurate scientific analogy and information in the glaring absence of the necessary scientific tools and proofs at that time? The only possible answer to the question is that the Quran is the book of the CREATOR of the universe who is ALL-KNOWING.
What makes the Quran even more astonishing than that is modern scientists have used some of the exact same analogies that were first written in the Quran over 1400 years ago. So who says religion and science have to at odd!

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

September 11, 2018

Basic English Phrases for Daily Communication


If you want to get better at English then it is a good idea to learn English Phrases rather than sticking to English grammar along with vocabulary. Because, if you know 100 words as vocabulary, you might not be able to make ten grammatically correct sentences but if you know 100 phrases then perhaps you could make 1000 correct English sentences. 

An important thing to remember while working at your English communication skills is to never try to translate from you Mother language. All you need is to use the given sentences according to a situation. You do not need to bother about their meanings in your Mother language.

Thursday, August 30, 2018

August 30, 2018

Compliments| Direct Objects and Indirect Objects

The most basic order of a sentence in the English language is
Subject + Predicate
And if we break it down further, then the basic order of a sentence is
Subject + Verb + Object.
And those objects are called compliments because these are the words that complete the meaning of a verb.
There are two types of compliments in the English language.
  • Direct Object
  • Indirect Object

Direct Objects

Direct Objects are super easy to spot because their position is very regular. These objects always follow transitive action verbs and answer the questions: what or whom. Their general formula is
Subject + Verb +What/Whom.
Subject + Verb + Direct Object.
For example,
Rayyan and Ali play tennis in the court.
Rayyan and Ali = Subjects; play = verb, which is our action verb which needs another word to receive the action in order to complete the meaning of the sentence, called transitive verb.
Now we can ask our "Direct Objects" questions.
Rayyan and Ali played what? Tennis = Direct object.
Let's look at another example of Direct Object.
Adriana loves singing more than anything else.
Again Adriana = Subject; loves = verb; Adriana loves what? Direct Object = singing.
She is wearing her beautiful clothes.
She = Subject; wearing = verb. What is she wearing? Beautiful clothes = Direct Object.
He hates dogs.
He = subject; hates = verb; He hates whom? Dogs = Direct object.

Indirect Objects

Indirect objects are very easy to spot as they are found after the transitive verb and before the direct object.
Transitive Verb ------ Indirect Object ------ Direct Objects

Indirect objects answer the questions; To whom, for whom, and to what.
Let's look at the following examples.
She gave my friend a gift.
The object has been given is a gift and it was given to MY FRIEND.
She = Subject; gave = verb; what did she give to my friend? A gift = Direct Object; 
She gave a gift to whom? Friend = Indirect Object.
This sentence can also be written as
She gave a gift to my friend.
There is no difference in meaning between the two sentences but the last one does not contain an Indirect Object. Do you know why? To understand, look at the "POSITION" of the word friend; is it where it needs to be in order to be considered an Indirect Object?
No, it is not!
In fact, it is just a part of a prepositional phrase and cannot be an indirect object.